In the eighties the XX centuries the difference between the American and Japanese producers of cars became obvious. The American cars were lost significantly Japanese in quality, the price and functionality. It was necessary to get somehow out of this situation, and General Motors decided to create the enterprise which isn't conceding on technical characteristics and equipment to the Japanese companies. So in 1984 in the city of Troy near Detroit the Saturn brand was based. Production of inexpensive automobile compacts was its profile.
Saturn plants were equipped on the last technologies. Were laid hopes on this company, it became one of the most important divisions of General Motors. All models developed at Saturn plants gathered on special platforms and with special engines. These cars differed in attractive design and small cost. Besides, they were economical in fuel consumption and lungs in management. These characteristics helped Saturn cars to find the consumers quickly.
The new plant of division started working in 1990. On it cars in a compartment body, versatile persons and sedans were made. Here the first electric car of General Motors corporation was developed and designed. The double car of EV1 was equipped with the three-phase electric motor of alternating current, differential, a two-speed transmission and ecologically safe accumulator. The electric car was rather successful model, and the management of the company made the decision to put it on a mass production.
In 1991 the company presented to broad masses a new line of cars under the name Saturn S-Series. It were class cars a sedan (SL), a compartment (SC) and the station wagon (SW). The complete set of these models differed with several types of engines: line, of 1,9 liters, 101 and 126 horsepowers. Cars were equipped with a five-speed transmission. Such car gathered speed to 160 km/h. At further modification of this series of a compartment received the hidden third door of oar type. The last update of a ruler was made in the spring 2000.
In the fall of 2000 the Saturn company presented in the market a new series of a car under the name Saturn L-Series. The ruler consisted of two cars: sedan of LS1 and LW2 station wagon. Both cars were equipped with cross located 2,2 liters V-shaped six-cylinder engines. Depending on wishes of the buyer motors with power from 139 to 185 horsepowers were installed, at this car dispersed to 170 km/h and to 185 km/h respectively. Besides, cars were completed with an automatic or mechanical transmission.
In the same 2000 in Detroit the all-wheel drive minivan of Saturn CV1 Concept was presented. The car was equipped with the 2,2 liters four-cylinder motor, 137 horsepowers, and an automatic transmission. Saturn CV1 Concept possessed spacious comfortable salon and quietly placed in itself five adult passengers and two children for whom two folding chairs were provided. This car was equipped with big oar doors and folding seats thanks to which it was possible to bring freely in salon and to place the nursery or a wheelchair, or to transport small freight.
In naves of each wheel small liquid crystal screens thanks to which it was always possible to check with ease pressure in tires were installed. And under a cowl special alarm bulbs of different flowers settled down, each of which showed when it is time to change oil, brake or glass cleaning fluid. At the same time, on the international motor show the Saturn company presented the first SUV which received the name Saturn VUE to Miami. It left at the same time in two versions: front-wheel and all-wheel drive. The car was equipped with one of two types of engines: four-cylinder 138 horsepowers or six-cylinder 181 horsepower. This SUV was developed as alternative to leaders of the Japanese market Ц Honda CR-V, Mazda Tribute and Suzuki Grand Vitara.
Two years later, General Motors submitted the updated versions of Saturn L-Series cars. In both cars, a sedan and the versatile person, produced changes concerned only design of a body and salon.
Also Saturn VUE was modified, the truth of change in this model were much more essential. The car was constructed on a new sport and carriage platform, thanks to a spatial frame lowered height of thresholds Ц now it became much more convenient to come and leave the car. Seats in salon too underwent changes: they became higher thanks to what the review of the road improved, and back sitting could lean back in two positions now. But the main changes happened under a cowl. The car was completed with a stepless variator which was joined to the four-cylinder Ecotec motor with a power of 138 horsepowers and of 2,2 liters, electrical servorum and a five-step mechanical transmission.
In 2002 at the international automobile exhibition in New York debuted absolutely new models the sedan and a compartment Saturn ION quadra urged to replace the last S-Series models a sedan of SL, SL1 and SL2 and a compartment of SC1 and SC2.
The sedan of ION was created as alternative to the known Honda Civic, Toyota Corolla, Mazda Protege, Nissan Sentra and Ford Focus models. Coupet a quadra of ION had to argue for the leading positions in the market with Mercury Cougar, Honda Civic Coupe, Hyundai Tiburon and VW New Beetle. Both cars were developed on a new platform, and their sizes much more exceeded the sizes of the previous models. Cases of cars were executed on the well-known spatial frame which was outside given short weight by the polymeric plastic which - is easily replaced, not deformable and corrosion-proof.
Cars with the new integral aluminum Ecotec engine with a power of 137 horsepowers, a mechanical five-speed transmission and new automatic five-step on the improved models of a compartment and sedans were equipped. By the special order transmission with a stepless variator was established.
In 2004 the company submitted new versions of Saturn VUE and Saturn ION cars (the latest model replaced the name with Red Line). The VUE SUV had the V-shaped 6-cylinder L66 engine with a capacity of 250 horsepowers, a sports suspension bracket, 18-inch disks of wheels and the chromeplated exhaust system. The salon was trimmed by black skin and was completed with the audio system.
Saturn ION was equipped with the 205 horsepowers four-cylinder engine, and also a five-step mechanical transmission of Getrag F35. At this model brakes were improved, and in salon sports seats were established.
Same year the new model - SE sedan was presented. The car interior was executed from skin of two flowers, was equipped with a rear-view mirror with autoblackout, and also the temperature indicator and a compass. The model was issued in three flowers: red, blue and black.
Next year in Saturn ION the automatic transmission was replaced with a new four-stage automatic box 4-speed 4T45-E. And on Saturn VUE ceased to install 4-cylinder engines.
In 2006 the Saturn VUE SUV was slightly modified. Generally changes concerned design of a car: better materials in finishing of salon, a new lattice of a radiator and a bumper. And in a year the market was entered by new option of the existing Saturn VUE model - Green Line. The updated SUV possessed the hybrid Ecotec DOHC motor of 2,4 liters and 170 horsepowers.
All new models offered by the Saturn company are successful modifications of earlier models of a car, the main. Today the company lets out some options of two basic VUE and ION models.
The division of Saturn still is one of the most important offices of General Motors corporation. Thanks to application of the latest technologies, the cars released under this brand enjoy the increasing popularity around the world, in particular, in Japan.1 - 36
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